Glossary of Terms


is a type of motor speech disorder that affects the way the body is able to produce speech. Motor speech disorders are neurological in nature, meaning a child’s brain has difficulty coordinating the different body parts needed to produce speech — the tongue, lips, and lower jaw. Due to this neurological difference, children with apraxia struggle with sequencing and articulating sounds, syllables, and words when they are trying to communicate

Autism Spectrum Disorders – ASD

ASD are characterized by social-interaction

difficulties, communication challenges and a tendency to engage in repetitive

behaviors. However, symptoms and their severity vary widely across these

three core areas. Taken together, they may result in relatively mild challenges

for someone on the high functioning end of the autism spectrum. For others,

symptoms may be more severe, as when repetitive behaviors and lack of

spoken language interfere with everyday life.

Attention-deficit disorder – ADD

ADD This is the old term for brain-based

conditions that affect people’s ability to stay focused on things like schoolwork,

social interactions and everyday activities like brushing teeth and getting

dressed. People with ADD do not have hyperactivity. Kids with ADD might fly

under the radar as they often appear shy, day dreamy or off in their own world.

Attention-deficit disorder – ADD

hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Has the same behaviour

and symptoms as ADD except they are hyperactive. They have trouble sitting
still and might be so restless that teachers quickly notice their rambunctious

behaviour and suspect there might be attention issues involved.

Auditory processing disorder

Auditory processing disorder affects kids’ ability to sort through the sounds

they hear. They may struggle to understand what people are saying. Reading

can also be tough for them. That’s because so much of reading involves

connecting sounds with letters. Kids with auditory processing disorder often

have trouble recognizing the difference between letters like b and d and

sounding out new words.


Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in

origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word

recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties

typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is

often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of

effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include

problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can

impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.


is not a sign of muscle weakness or of low intelligence as once

thought. It’s a brain-based condition that makes it hard to plan and coordinate

physical movement. Children with dyspraxia tend to struggle with balance and

posture. They may appear clumsy or “out of sync” with their environment.


Dyscalculia makes it hard to do math. Many kids have serious difficulties in

both reading and math and may have dyscalculia in addition to dyslexia.

Trouble learning to count is associated with both conditions.


Dysgraphia can affect children’s ability write and spell. It can also make it

hard to organize their thoughts on paper. Many kids with dysgraphia also have


Visual Processing

Visual processing issues can make it hard to see the difference between

letters or shapes. Kids with visual processing issues may complain of blurry

vision or of letters “hopping around on the page.” They may try to compensate

by squinting or closing one eye. They often reverse letters when writing and

struggle to stay within the lines.

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Beginning Reading and Phonological Awareness

Areas of Processing Deficit and Their Link to Areas of Academic Achievement Phonological Processing Model

Common Signs of Learning Struggles


Homeschooling an ADHD Child

Music Therapy Assists Students with Learning Difficulties

Neuropsychological Functional Approach

NonVerbal Learning Disability

Processing and Memory summaries

Theory of Cognitive Processing

Visual Processing Struggles

What are Learning Disabilities

Virtual Resources

Skills Addressed


Signing Time

ASL instruction in a variety of content areas including:
Life Skills
Sight Words,
Social-Emotional Skills,

Videos, activities, learning guides and music teaching American Sign Language (ASL)

Epic Books

STEAM-Aligned Literacy Content, Decoding, Listening, Reading, Comprehension, Vocabulary, Word Tracking

eBooks available including read alouds, read alongs, learning videos and quizzes; Spanish also available

Mommy Speech therapy

Articulation, Blends and digraphs, Consonant sounds, Phonology, Speech sound development, Story Structure practice, Vowel sounds

Free downloadable activities and worksheets focusing on speech and language development; links to apps to support student speech and language goals


Literacy, Phonological awareness, Reading comprehension, Decoding, Fluency, Home learning series,
Reading routines

Multi-Sensory Literacy Activities; geared toward struggling readers and students with literacy-based disabilities; live training webinars for teachers and families


Communication, Expressive Language, Literacy, Receptive Language, Sentence Building, Vocabulary

Lessons and activities in language and vocabulary for AAC users and students who benefit from visual support for communication

No videos; All online programs are virtual, including tools, game boards, and numbers

Social / Emotional / Metal Health Resources


Communication, Cooperation, Emotion Regulation -Empathy, Impulse Control, Social Initiation

Games and activities available online and for download addressing social skills and emotion regulation

Close Gap

Bullying Prevention, Emotion Regulation, Self-Awareness

Resources in guiding students, families and educators in emotion regulation with a daily emotion tracking tool