Glossary of Terms
Apraxia is a type of motor speech disorder that affects the way the body is able to produce speech. Motor speech disorders are neurological in nature, meaning a child’s brain has difficulty coordinating the different body parts needed to produce speech — the tongue, lips, and lower jaw. Due to this neurological difference, children with apraxia struggle with sequencing and articulating sounds, syllables, and words when they are trying to communicate
Autism Spectrum Disorders - ASD ASD are characterized by social-interaction difficulties, communication challenges and a tendency to engage in repetitive behaviors. However, symptoms and their severity vary widely across these three core areas. Taken together, they may result in relatively mild challenges for someone on the high functioning end of the autism spectrum. For others, symptoms may be more severe, as when repetitive behaviors and lack of spoken language interfere with everyday life.
Attention-deficit disorder - ADD ADD This is the old term for brain-based conditions that affect people’s ability to stay focused on things like schoolwork, social interactions and everyday activities like brushing teeth and getting dressed. People with ADD do not have hyperactivity. Kids with ADD might fly under the radar as they often appear shy, day dreamy or off in their own world.
Attention-deficit disorder - ADD hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Has the same behaviour and symptoms as ADD except they are hyperactive. They have trouble sitting still and might be so restless that teachers quickly notice their rambunctious behaviour and suspect there might be attention issues involved.
Auditory processing disorder Auditory processing disorder affects kids’ ability to sort through the sounds they hear. They may struggle to understand what people are saying. Reading can also be tough for them. That’s because so much of reading involves connecting sounds with letters. Kids with auditory processing disorder often have trouble recognizing the difference between letters like b and d and sounding out new words.
Dyslexia Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
Dyspraxia is not a sign of muscle weakness or of low intelligence as once thought. It’s a brain-based condition that makes it hard to plan and coordinate physical movement. Children with dyspraxia tend to struggle with balance and posture. They may appear clumsy or “out of sync” with their environment.
Dyscalculia Dyscalculia makes it hard to do math. Many kids have serious difficulties in both reading and math and may have dyscalculia in addition to dyslexia. Trouble learning to count is associated with both conditions.
Dysgraphia Dysgraphia can affect children’s ability write and spell. It can also make it hard to organize their thoughts on paper. Many kids with dysgraphia also have dyslexia.
Visual Processing Visual processing issues can make it hard to see the difference between letters or shapes. Kids with visual processing issues may complain of blurry vision or of letters “hopping around on the page.” They may try to compensate by squinting or closing one eye. They often reverse letters when writing and struggle to stay within the lines.


ADD Managing Adult Attention Deficit Disorder

Beginning Reading and Phonological Awareness

Areas of Processing Deficit and Their Link to Areas of Academic Achievement Phonological Processing Model

Common Signs of Learning Struggles


Homeschooling an ADHD Child

Music Therapy Assists Students with Learning Difficulties

Neuropsychological Functional Approach

NonVerbal Learning Disability

Phonological Processing

Processing and Memory summaries

Theory of Cognitive Processing

Visual Processing Struggles

What are Learning Disabilities

Virtual Resources Skills Addressed Description
Signing Time ASL instruction in a variety of content areas including: Communication, Life Skills Movement, Music, Science, Sight Words, Social-Emotional Skills, Vocabulary Videos, activities, learning guides and music teaching American Sign Language (ASL)
Epic Books STEAM-Aligned Literacy Content, Decoding, Listening, Reading, Comprehension, Vocabulary, Word Tracking eBooks available including read alouds, read alongs, learning videos and quizzes; Spanish also available
Mommy Speech therapy Articulation, Blends and digraphs, Consonant sounds, Phonology, Speech sound development, Story Structure practice, Vowel sounds Free downloadable activities and worksheets focusing on speech and language development; links to apps to support student speech and language goals
LExplore Literacy, Phonological awareness, Reading comprehension, Decoding, Fluency, Home learning series, Reading routines Multi-Sensory Literacy Activities; geared toward struggling readers and students with literacy-based disabilities; live training webinars for teachers and families
AbleNet Communication, Expressive Language, Literacy, Receptive Language, Sentence Building, Vocabulary Lessons and activities in language and vocabulary for AAC users and students who benefit from visual support for communication No videos; All online programs are virtual, including tools, game boards, and numbers
Social / Emotional / Metal Health Resources
Centervention Communication, Cooperation, Emotion Regulation -Empathy, Impulse Control, Social Initiation Games and activities available online and for download addressing social skills and emotion regulation
Close Gap Bullying Prevention, Emotion Regulation, Self-Awareness Resources in guiding students, families and educators in emotion regulation with a daily emotion tracking tool